Development of sustainable tourism marketing mix

The existence of sustainable tourism marketing mix (STMM) is inseparable from the increasingly mature of sustainable tourism marketing (STM) and sustainable marketing mix (SMM) concepts. Reviews of STM have passed their popularity in the late 1990s to 2005, and have now entered a stable and constant phase. On the other hand, for the ten years of SMM study has tended to increase even though in the number of discussions still does not exceed STM studies. Many studies have been recorded and presented in the form of textbooks or journal articles relating to both. In 2010, Pomering tried to initiate a combination of both in an STMM conceptual framework. Regrettably, this STMM development has been stalled since 2014, and there was only one last article published in 2017. In this latest study, he initiated how all the construct elements of STMM influence the formation of value for the customers, clients, partners, and society at large. Unfortunately, the existence of STMM is still a concept that has not been tested empirically until now. He explicitly stated that the empirical study needed, of course, this is to strengthen the concept he built. Basically what he is trying to express is that STMM is an answer to the problem of sustainable tourism marketing strategy faced by most STDs.

Research on STMM has so far been minimal. There were only eight articles with varying quality and relevance, from all of that only Pomering is quite consistent (though rarely) publishing the results of the study on this subject. Smyrnov tried to mention STMM in the context of its geography approach which is irrelevant with our purpose, while Meler and Magaš superficially reviewed STMM related to the behavior and the need for implementation of new policies and strategies. Some other publications even do plagiarism without citing the original source. This phenomenon intrigues us to conduct further studies on STMM.

Conceptually, the SMM or STMM provides a refreshing new idea, which along with the changing behavior of the world community about consumerism, also changes the perspective of industry and organizations in marketing a product. Researchers have revealed this paradigm shift. The face of marketing has changed from the encouragement of unnecessary consumption, promoting a culture of materialism and a relentless search for unattainable manifestations to become processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The change from the “bad” marketing starting point to the “good” direction is the hope contained in the concept of sustainable marketing that is in line with the demands of the global world for a better future. This change is also in line with the messages raised repeatedly at world-scale meetings at the UN.

Pomering initiated the STMM model by consolidating several previous SMM concepts that were cross-tabulated with Population, Planet, and Profit or known as Triple Bottom Line (TBL).Screenshot from 2018-10-02 23-56-22

He argued the STMM model he built is entirely appropriate to address the sustainable tourism marketing mix demands. However, the author believed that the cross-tabulation to TBL was outdated, not comprehensive and sufficient responding to today’s global demands. As we know that the UN in 2015 has formulated five critical dimensions: people, prosperity, planet, partnership, and peace. Traditionally viewed through the lens of three core elements – social inclusion, economic growth, and environmental protection – the concept of sustainable development has been taken on meaning with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, which builds upon traditional approaches by adding two critical components: partnership and peace. We believed this model could better answer the phenomenon of STMM today.

Screenshot from 2018-10-03 16-47-46

Besides, the conceptual framework proposed by Pomering is not implementable because there are no clear indicators. We cannot formulate which conditions are ideal for the population, what and how the marketing mix can benefit the Planet and how much profit the organization deserves. The absence of clear indicators results in not being able to make concise, comprehensive and balanced assessments of the conditions or fundamental aspects of a phenomenon. Several other studies have attempted to determine the indicators of sustainable tourism measurement, and the development of these indicators will be discussed in more depth later. (ay)

The need for sustainable tourism marketing mix in Indonesia?

tourismThe subject of sustainable tourism has become a global trend, and studies on sustainable tourism marketing (STM) in the past ten years have increased rapidly and consistently. Generally, this study departs from the supply-based approach; and followed by the demand-based approach on the later. Often the phenomenon of STM research is overlapping with sustainable tourist behavior, green marketing, economic sustainability, socially responsible marketing, and corporate social responsible marketing. In recent years, especially since 2010, the study of STM began to mention sustainable tourism marketing mix (STMM) as an effective marketing strategy in achieving organizational goals. However, the review of STMM is not well developed, even though we comprehend that professional marketers widely use the marketing mix concept, and sustainable tourism is already a mature concept and in line with global demands of the present and the future. Based on Google Scholar’s, the keyword “sustainable tourism marketing” produced 377 articles, “sustainable marketing mix” produced 75 articles, and the search for “sustainable tourism marketing mix” appeared in eight articles. If we look at the publication timeline, the first publication of STM was mentioned in 1994, SMM was in 1999, and for the STMM, the first article published in 2009. Notably, eight writings of STMM were published in the period 2009 to 2014, while from 2015 to the present is absence.

Reviewing the STMM research, Pomering was one of the people who first adopted and published the term. He departed from a question “Sustainable tourism marketing what should be in the mix?” then proceeded to propose an STMM model generated from inductive research from the addition of marketing mix elements that were cross-tabulated with the sustainability imperatives of the Population, Planet, and Profit also known as a Triple Bottom Line concept. In 2017 his latest publication on STMM discussed how all the construct elements of STMM influence the formation of value for the customers, clients, partners, and society at large. Of all the studies published, none of the empirical evidentiary efforts related to the STMM concept were found. So far he only discussed STMM at the level of concept strengthening. Several other researchers who study STMM just publish articles in journals whose reputation is doubtful. This conditions can be seen by the absence of a framework of thought, specific research methods, problem formulation, and even the tendency to do plagiarism from the results of previous writing. However, two other researchers raised STMM with a slightly different theme. Smyrnov tried to mention STMM in the context of his geography approach which irrelevant with our purpose, while Meler and Magaš superficially review STMM relating to the behavior and the need for the implementation of new policies and strategies in the context of the discussion of sustainable marketing for sustainable development.

Unfortunately, the STMM study has not been empirically done. This condition will only put STMM as a concept that has not been tested in practice. A concept should be built, tested and implemented to prove its accuracy. Therefore, the researchers believe that the STMM test will undoubtedly be able to fill this gap of knowledge. As mentioned, this STMM will form value for the customers, clients, partners, and society at large so a study of how causality between each element and as a whole-systems of STMM toward perceived value is relevant to sustainable marketing strategy today. Which constructs have the most significant impact, are the constructs adequate, or are they lacking so that they need to be added or merged/reduced, how are they related, and how are their adoption and implementation in marketing strategies in the daily marketing life.

On the other hand, Indonesia’s tourism is currently prioritizing and focusing on as a sustainable tourist destination (STD). Ironically, Indonesia’s tourism competitiveness for the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Travel Environment and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) is still low. Furthermore, Indonesia’s destinations as STD considered insignificant as presented by several influential publications. This presence is in contrast to the positioning of the government which places sustainable tourism as a priority. So an empirical study on how STMM and its causality with perceived values in Indonesia are very suitable to be carried out, to get a more precise picture of what the government should do in improving its marketing strategy performance. (ay)

The lion and a woman

lion-and-lambI remembered the story of a woman who gave up her husband. Her husband is so difficult to compromise. Her husband is easily offended and is curt when the wife asks for an opinion.

There is no day without long debate. They are like a cat and mouse. The wife really can’t stand her husband’s behavior and decided to leave her husband alone. In short, they have been far apart. The wife then complained to a friend.

“Actually, I have a lion in the cage behind my house. The handler who usually takes care of him is sick. Well, this month, you will keep my lion. If it’s been a month, I’ll tell you how you maintain the integrity of your family. ”

The woman protested, “what does the lion have to do with my husband? This is irrelevant. ”

“Don’t complain. If you ask for my advice, do your job first. Try to feed my lion, and stay healthy until next month. Next month, I’ll see you again, I’m having a lot of business to be done, ” said her friend.

So, the woman thinks hard. Every day she went to the lion’s cage. In the beginning, the lion fiercely roars. Later, she brought food to the lion. At first, she brought food once a day, sooner later twice a day. Initially, the lion roared loudly if she fed. Over time, the lion stayed quiet and roared softly to welcome her presence.

Over time, the lion automatically approached the woman’s direction, when she heard her footsteps. Within a month, the lion no longer roars fiercely. This lion even remained silent when the woman caressed her head, she even enjoyed the caress.

Her friend observed the development silently. Precisely a month, she invited the woman for a discussion.

“So, what should I do so my husband will be nice to me again?” Asked the woman.

“If a lion who doesn’t speak the same language, you can tame it. How is it possible with your own husband you can’t? ”

Return to your husband, actually, your husband’s matter is easier than taming a lion … ” answered her friend. The woman was stunned, but soon realized and said goodbye.

If a fierce lion can be tamed by humans. How could the relationship between husband and wife be more difficult? There must be a way, there must be a good solution when there are a strong will and determination.

Kitab Rumah Tangga Islami – Uquudu Lujain (1-10)

BAB I

Muqodiimah

Shahabat-shahabat yang dirahmati oleh Alloh S.W.T, Alhamdulillah segala puji tersanjung kehadirat Alloh S.W.T Sholawat dan salam selalu terlimpahkan kepada sayyidina Muhammad S.A.W beserta keluarganya dan para shahabat, sejumlah bilangan semua perkara yang diketahui Alloh. “Amma ba’du”.

Izinlah kami menulis bulletin ini dengan suatu pegangan kitab, yang insya Alloh kami ambil dari kitab “UQUUDU LUJAIN FII BAYAANI HUQUUQUZZAUJAINI” Kami sangat berharap memperoleh pertolongan Alloh, keikhlasan, diterima dan ber manfa’at dalam segala hal yang berkaitan dengan risalah yang kami tulis ini, semata karena kemuliaan sayyidina Muhammad S.A.W para istrinya anak cucunya dan golongan beliau.

Risalah ini kami hadiahkan kepada kedua orang tua kami, dengan harapan memperoleh pengampuan dari Alloh, dan mudah-mudahan derajatnya ditinggikan. Sesungguhnya Alloh S.W.T adalah dzat yang maha luas pengampunan Nya dan dzat Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyayang.
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